Major Trade Name: Succinite (Baltic Amber)
A mineral that is the fossil resin of pine trees of Triassic age that ended about 120 million years ago. Its chemical composition is described as having the major contents of carbon (79%), oxygen (10%), and hydrogen (9%) and the much less contents of sulphur and soot. The specific gravity of amber (1.05 – 1.10) is slightly greater than that of water. Amber melts at temperatures of 350 to 375C. When being burned, it gives out a very pleasant scent, its typical feature. Sometimes, it has inclusions of insects and parts of plants that are very well preserved. The main deposit occurrence of amber, which is, perhaps, the only one across the world in terms of its abundance, beauty and variety of its amber forms and colors, as well as of bright luster and wonderful, goldish shades of its amber, is on the shores of the Baltic Sea.
|| Semiprecious Stone Lapis Lazuli (Synonym of: Lazurite)|
It is a remarkable gemstone of sky blue color and has been known for 7,000 years of the entire history of human culture.
Lapis lazuli is an aluminum silicate having a complex formula with sulphur content.
In terms of its origin, lapis lazuli falls into the group of so-called contact minerals because it forms when molten magma touches limestones.
In Russia, the first deposit occurrence of lapis lazuli was discovered in 1785 on the shores of the Sludyanka River that flows into Lake Baikal.
Its second occurrence was found in the Pamir Mountains in 1930.
|| Gem Stone Tourmaline|
A mineral of variable color that consists of a complex borosilicate, namely, aluminum silicate of alkalines of calcium, iron and magnesium, as well as containing boron, a relatively rare element. Tourmaline outperforms all other precious and semiprecious gemstones, even corundum, in terms of a range of colors and is highly appreciated by jewelers because it makes a striking gem when transparent and cut.
In Russia, the tourmaline deposit occurrences are in Siberia ( Malkhanskoye field ) and the Ural Mountains.
|| Semiprecious Stone Malachite|
A mineral that belongs to the carbonate family (the copper carbonate group).
It has a green leaf color or some tint of that color.
Malachite is formed in the oxidized zones of copper ore deposits so that it is a cooper ore by-product.
The copper ore malachite deposits in Nizhnetagilsk, the Ural Mountains, Russia were discovered in 1810-1814.
|| Semiprecious Stone Charoite (Synonym of: Charoite)|
A mineral that belongs to the silicate family (the inosilicate group).
It has fibrous crystal masses and long columnar aggregates.
It comes in a range of colors from white, lavender, lilac, violet, and/or purple, the lilac to purple being the most prized.
Mohs' Hardness: 5.5
Specific Gravity: 2.5-2.6
Charoit forms within alkali-rich nepheline syenites.
The only its deposit occurrence is in the Chara River region in Siberia, Russia.
|| Semiprecious Stone Eudialyte, or Lappish blood|
A mineral that can show distinctive colors of a red-violet, pink, blue, yellow, an attractive brown and contains some amount of zirconium.
In Russia, the eudialyte deposit occurrences are in the Kola Peninsula.
|| Semiprecious Stone Clinochlore, or Serafinite|
Clinochlore is an aluminum silicate that belongs to the chlorite group of minerals.
Its deposit occurrences in Russia are located in the Urals and Siberia.
|| Semiprecious Stone Jasper|
Jasper is a very dense, multicolored, impure, opaque microcrystalline variety of quartz.
The diaphaneity and hardness of jasper as well as its beautiful appearance and diversity of tints of colors make it precious in terms of art and jewelry.
In Russia, the first deposit occurrences of jasper were discovered in the Southern Ural Mountains in the XVIII century.
||Semiprecious Stone Serpentine|
A mineral that is generally found in shades of green and has a scaly or fibrous structure.
It is composed of hydrous magnesium silicate that is almost always impure of iron.
Some serpentine deposit occurrences are in the Ural and Altai Mountains, as well as in Transbaikalia (sometimes also known as Dauria).
|| Semiprecious Stone Rhodonite|
This mineral is composed of manganese silicate.
The deposit occurrences of rhodonite in Russia were found in the Middle Ural Mountains.
||Semiprecious Stone Hematite|
A mineral that comes from a subclass of simple oxides and constitutes an important iron ore, so-called red iron ore (bloodstone) of black color, but it becomes red when powdered.
Hematite crystallizes to form a trigonal system.
Hematite occurs in crystals or in a red earthy form. Its main deposit occurrences (in the form of ferruginous quartzite, or jaspilite) are in Krivoi Rog, Ukraine, and the Kursk magnetic anomaly, Russia.
|| Semiprecious Stone Nephrite, or Jade|
Nephrite is in fact not a mineral, but a tough, compact, cryptocrystalline variety of the minerals actinolite and tremolite made up of microscopically interwoven fibers.
It is very precious in terms of strength and toughness. Color is usually green, white or gray. In Russia, the nephrite deposit occurrences are in Siberia.
|| Semiprecious Stone Amethyst|
Amethyst is a clear purple or bluish violet variety of crystallized quartz. Color varies from very light to the most precious, deep shades of purple.
In the former Soviet Union, the amethyst deposit occurrences are in the Ural Mountains, the Kola Peninsula, and Kazakhstan.
|| Semiprecious Stone Moonstone|
Moonstone is a transparent or translucent feldspar of pearly or opaline luster. In Russia, the moonstone deposit occurrences are in the Kola Peninsula.
|| Semiprecious Stone Chrysoprase|
Chrysoprase is an apple-green variety of chalcedony. In the former Soviet Union, the amethyst deposit occurrences are in the Ural Mountains and Kazakhstan.
|| Semiprecious Stone Apatite|
Apatite is a calcium phosphate mineral containing fluorine and chlorine. It occurs as hexagonal crystals or as granular masses.
In Russia, the apatite deposit occurrences are in the Ural Mountains and the Kola Peninsula.
||Semiprecious Stone Fluorite, or Fluorspar|
Fluorite is a widespread mineral of different colors that consists of the fluoride of calcium. In Russia, the fluorite deposit occurrences are in the Ural Mountains.
||Semiprecious Stone Uvarovite
Uvarovite is a mineral that belongs to the garnets group. It is a calcium-chromium silicate.
Uvarovite is of pneumatolytic-hydrothermal origin. It occurs in chromite-bearing ultrabasic rocks. Color is emerald green.
It is named after Count Sergey S. Uvarov (1765-1855), Russian statesman. Its first deposit occurrence was discovered in the Ural Mountains in the XVIII century.
||Semiprecious Stone Gypsum|
Gypsum is hydrated calcium sulfate. Gypsum has several varieties widely used in the mineral trade. One of them is called alabaster and is an ornamental stone used in fine carvings for thousands of years. Another variety is called selenite, is fibrous and shows a pearl like luster.
Gypsum is very important to the economy. Both alabaster and selenite are ornamental stones.